It may seem odd to us that Aristotle at no point argues for what dispositions should be considered virtuous and which vicious. Perhaps, then, he realizes how little can be accomplished, in the study of ethics, to provide it with a rational foundation.
To achieve the good of the individual is worthwhile, but the good of the community, which is composed of many individuals, has a higher, more divine quality. It is the aim of politics to create the best possible conditions in which citizens can lead good lives.
Rhetoric and dialectic similarly apply the so-called topoi. Alternate Readings of Aristotle on Akrasia 8. This is not the only way of reading the Ethics, however. Since people have a natural disposition for the true Rhet. Although this tends to be more durable than those based on utility, they only endure as long as each person shares the same interests or enjoys going to the same places.
Other associations are aimed at more specific advantages. He insists that ethics is not a theoretical discipline: He defends the family as a social institution against the criticisms of Plato Politics II. The explanation of akrasia is a topic to which we will return in section 7.
Why such a restricted audience. Rhetoric and dialectic rely on accepted sentences endoxa. Friendships based on advantage alone or pleasure alone deserve to be called friendships because in full-fledged friendships these two properties, advantage and pleasure, are present.
Thank you for your awesome work. The only underived reason for action is self-interest; that an act helps another does not by itself provide a reason for performing it, unless some connection can be made between the good of that other and one's own.
Pleasure occurs when something within us, having been brought into good condition, is activated in relation to an external object that is also in good condition. As earlier in the story, when Jim went ashore without permission, he again acts on his own initiative by slipping out of the stockade without telling anyone.
This type of friendship is permanent, because in it are united all the attributes that friends ought to possess: Nevertheless, this expectation is somehow misled: This is precisely what a strong form of egoism cannot accept.
But his discussion of happiness in Book X does not start from scratch; he builds on his thesis that pleasure cannot be our ultimate target, because what counts as pleasant must be judged by some standard other than pleasure itself, namely the judgment of the virtuous person.
What he means is that when it comes to such matters as education, which affect the good of all, each individual should be guided by the collective decisions of the whole community.
Summary. If there should exist an end which is desirable for its own sake, which determines and motivates all other actions and choices, this end would be that which is absolutely good.
Free Study Guides and book notes including comprehensive chapter analysis, complete summary analysis, author biography information, character profiles, theme analysis, metaphor analysis, and top ten quotes on classic literature., A Walk to Remember: Chapter 8.
20; 40; There Were None Angela's Ashes Animal Farm Anna Karenina. A TREATISE ON GOVERNMENT. BOOK I. CHAPTER I. CHAPTER II. CHAPTER III. CHAPTER IV. CHAPTER V. CHAPTER VI.
CHAPTER VII. CHAPTER VIII.
as is shown by the criticisms in the second book. But he has a power to see the possibilities of good in things that are imperfect, and the patience of the true politician who has. Aristotle's Politics is divided into eight books which are each further divided into chapters.
Ethics suggest that the treatise as a whole ought to conclude with the discussion of education that occurs in Book VIII of the Politics, Aristotle's Politics: Second Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Analysis: This chapter is the first of two chapters on the nature and purpose of friendship.
An in-depth analysis of Aristotle's view of friendship will consequently be provided at the end of the next chapter. For now, the analysis will cover the points in this chapter which are not directly connected with those discussed in the next chapter.
A summary of Book VIII in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Nicomachean Ethics and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.An analysis of the second paragraph of book four chapter eight of aristotles ethics